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The Pakistan Air Force kicks-off Tempest II exercise

Earlier this week, the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) had initiated Tempest II, a key exercise designed to assess the effectiveness of its air warfare assets.

According to the news outlet The News International, the PAF is looking to cement “newly conceptualised war fighting concepts” – i.e. harmonizing the PAF’s network-centric warfare competency.

Besides fine-tuning the PAF’s capabilities, Tempest II will also serve as a “tool for identifying … strengths and challenges, which ultimately steer the future force development process of [the] PAF.”

Comment and Analysis

Tempest II is a very important exercise. Since 2010, the PAF has inducted a number of high value assets, such as airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) aircraft, tactical data-link (TDL) protocols, and new multi-role fighters (i.e. F-16 Block-52+ and JF-17).

When looked at collectively, these systems have imbued the PAF with new and very important war fighting capabilities, most notably the capacity for network-centric warfare. It seems Tempest II will put the PAF’s competency in using its network-centric assets to the test, and will inform additional training and doctrine inputs. Solid execution is an important qualitative asset.

Tempest seems to be focused on air-to-air warfare, thus cementing the exercise’s importance considering that the PAF has not actively fought an opposing air force since the 1980s (during the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan). In a way, the exercise will serve as a stand-in for that experience, at least in terms of identifying deficiencies, which could then be fed back into the training and concept of operations (CONOPS) of the PAF.

There is another aspect as well – i.e. to determine necessary acquisitions for the future. How the PAF would come to its conclusions and what it will look to embrace will be interesting, especially in light of India’s marked advancements in building its fighter fleet as well as strengthen its air defence environment. There is also the issue of the India Navy and its air warfare (and anti-air) assets.

With the continued acquisition of F-16s being precarious, Tempest II could have an impact in determining the PAF’s fighter acquisition plans. Alternatively, or in addition, it could shape the forthcoming JF-17 Block-III. The manifestations of this exercise may not be clear for months – if not years in some respects – from its conclusion, but the PAF will be looking to insert improvements right from the onset.



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  • by Bilal Khan - Quwa
    Posted May 12, 2016 9:38 am 0Likes

    Moderation rules are now in effect. *All* off-topic posts, insults, etc, will *not* be approved. Ensure that your comments are (1) constructive, (2) professional, and (3) on-topic. Threads will automatically be closed after 48 hours of posting.

  • by Salman Khan
    Posted May 12, 2016 9:51 pm 0Likes

    Admin, I really doubt that Pakistan would be able to acquire the prospected developments for the JF-17 fighter from well-known avionics companies around the world. It is not easy at all, and in my humble opinion, almost impossible given the political situation around the world. I think we’d be in the end be forced to look at Chinese systems, something I even think makes the Chinese angry at us, as I believe, that we’ve been a major help for them by providing technological expertise. The popular “Made in China” slogan is actually quite correct to some extent; most Chinese technologies were developed from Western work. This still is the case even today. I mean are just 24 Su-35 really enough for the PLAAF? And after so much resistance to buy them? Well, I guess they wanted to learn a thing or two from these planes, and it seems Russia has agreed (politically behind the scenes ofc) at this (but on a take-it-slowly basis). I believe China really wants to make its own stuff, but it always searches for previously available technologies first. I don’t really believe, for example, that the Chinese “fully indigenous” and still-not available AESA radar would be any good as per the Western systems.

  • by U
    Posted May 13, 2016 7:30 am 0Likes

    How capable are PAF second hand F16 ADFs? Can they be armed with AMRAAMs, PGBs and LGBs? What about their EW capabilities?

  • by Bilal Khan - Quwa
    Posted May 13, 2016 8:48 am 0Likes

    I believe they are AMRAAM capable, but I’m not sure of much else.

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