The Turkish Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications is reportedly preparing to launch a national satellite launch vehicle (SLV) program in 2018.
According to the Daily Sabah and Anadolu Agency, the Space Probe Rocket and Launch System (BURAK) program aims to end Turkey’s reliance on foreign SLV providers. Turkey is already undertaking domestic satellite development and production through the TÜRKSAT-6A program.
The BURAK is expected to be undertaken in line with Turkey’s broader 2023 objectives, which also include flying a domestically made 5th-generation fighter (TFX), launching a helicopter carrier and other goals.
As with its other marquee and strategic programs, Turkey is expected to collaborate with an experienced overseas partner to bring the BURAK into fruition. Turkey signed an agreement with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to test materials developed in Turkey on the Japanese Experiment Module (KIBO) on the International Space Station (ISS).
Japan launched the first of Turkey’s equipment in 2016 and is currently testing it onboard the ISS. In 2018, the KIBO is expected to deploy the first of Turkey’s CubeSat platform.
Turkey’s space development ambitions include the deployment of both military and commercial satellites.
Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI) is leading the development and production of the TÜRKSAT-6A satellite communication (SATCOM) system. The TÜRKSAT-6A, which is scheduled for launch in 2020, will comprise of 20 Ku-band and two X-band transponders, with the latter for military usage.
In September, TAI also announced the development of lightweight geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO) SATCOM satellites. Weighing one-ton, the GEO satellite will use 22 transponders. TAI is positioning it for commercial purposes for domestic and overseas markets.
Specific parameters of the BURAK SLV program, such as payload capacity, are not known.
The BURAK will not be a factor for the four-ton TÜRKSAT-6A, which is due to launch before the 2023 target date for the BURAK. It is possible that Turkey is aiming to pair the one-ton GEO satellite with the BURAK SLV to provide a turnkey satellite design, development and launch program for the commercial market.
If this is not a purely vanity project it could mean Turkey is planning to launch a large number of satellites in next few decades, especially military ones.
In commercial space launch market Japan’s rockets were hardly competitive, especially with SpaceX’s entry. Even China can’t beat SpaceX’s price.
The key technology is reusable rockets, which SpaceX has mastered after working through a series of failures.
ISRO can beat Spacex in launching satellites at low cost.
Do you know the Indian rocket launch cost? I read “Advertised at $56.5 million per launch, Falcon 9 missions to GTO cost almost $15 million less than a ride atop a Chinese Long March 3B” from wikipedia of “Space launch market competition” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_launch_market_competition
“Falcon 9” is the SpaceX’s main launch vehicle, India was not even mentioned in there.
This might help –
That ISRO plan for a scramjet-powered TSTO booster is not expected to yield actual flight hardware (if ever) no earlier than 2030 as per that article you linked to. Scramjet technology is extremely difficult to master and even the United States had only flown experimental small-scale models of a scramjet for just minutes at a time over the past 15 years.
Unlike the ISRO scramjet, SpaceX’s BFR is already in advanced stages of development — The BFR’s Raptor engine already has 1200 seconds of firing across 42 tests. Even if ISRO actually fields a scramjet-powered booster in 2030, by then SpaceX’s BFR would have been flying for many years.
Agree. India should use Space X and launch satellites from them as it will be cheaper and more reliable. Better to outsource satellite launches. That’s the same logic that people are using here that Turkey should use isro.
The obvious difference being that India is already launching its own satellites (since the 70s) while Turkey has not.
Also, countries such as the US, France etc are also using Indian launch vehicles for their satellites.
Only for light satellites can ISRO compete against Falcon 9. Max payload capacity to GTO / cost:
– ISRO PSLV – 1200kg / $30 million USD
– ISRO GSLV – 2500kg / $47 million USD
– SpaceX Falcon 9 – 6000kg in expendable mode / $62 million USD
– SpaceX Falcon 9 – 5000kg in recoverable mode / cost savings not yet publicized.
If a rideshare service can arrange for a Falcon 9 to fly four 1200kg satellites in one launch, Falcon 9 actually costs less than PSLV per satellite launched.
And ISRO can’t compete with SpaceX for payloads greater than 2500kg, at least not for the next 5 years. By then SpaceX’s BFR may already be undergoing test flights.
Yea actually you are right, Turkey is planning regional positioning system and Electronic defence systems other than EO/SaR satellites, This is Turkey’s satellite launch plan;
That is indeed a very ambitious project, so far only a few countries attempted. That would explain the need of indigenous launch systems. During war time those satellites could get shot down and need to be quickly replaced.
@sinancagrkurt:disqus, very interesting chart and a wise move by Turkey towards space autonomy. (As an aside, this looks similar to India’s military satellite launch plan for the early 2020s.)
I have been lucky to witness India’s program since the 1990s and I can tell you, developing a comprehensive space program not only helps Industrial base to become sophisticated, the diplomatic autonomy and enhanced sense of technological sovereignty it bestows on a nation is not measurable in dollars or rupees or liras.
Turkey is choosing wisely considering the current bunch of nuts in the US and the general sense decline that has set in the EU. it may be ambitious and you will have setbacks, but the long term benefits are invaluable.
But it is a very expensive project, each launch likely costs over $70 million (That is the Chinese launch cost, I’d say Turkey system would cost more since it’s based on Japanese system), I think each satellite would cost about $400 million. Not to mention the expense of maintaining these satellites.
Due to the presence of SpaceX, this new launch vehicle is not going to have much or even any commercial benefits.
Navigation system is very, I mean very, important in today’s military world. But due to the expense only few countries built such systems. Even Japan only attempted a regional navigation system to compliment GPS, instead of a global one. I think Japan did it just to master the technology, if no longer be able to rely on GPS, Japan could quickly launch it’s own system.
Turkey should be eligible to use both Galileo and GPS, developing it’s own navigation system I think it means Turkey is taking quite seriously the threat of being kicked out of NATO.
You are right in pointing out the cost. Even India has limited itself to a regional coverage level in the IRNSS system. However, the problem with GPS, GLONASS or Beidou etc is that you are dependent on external technology of a country that could become hostile potentially.
Turkey is not having the best of relations with the EU/NATO/US presently and I personally think if the resources are available and can be spent in a planned fashion, a constellation of navigation, SAR, EO/IR satellites could prove invaluable. we in India have pushed this angle since 2008 precisely for this reason (there are no friends in foreign policy (US, Russia are dangerous ‘friends’ to have anyways) and it is best to internalize technology when it is available on cordial terms)
Satellite launch vehicles technology would also help if one was to pursue the development of ballistic missiles and ICBMs.
ICBMs are useless without nukes. But it is possible all the domestic defense efforts now are serving as preparation for future arms embargo. Turkey is also building a nuclear power plant, which is a reasonable step to acquire nuclear related knowledge and stockpile radioactive materials.
Fun fact eurpean news are getting nervous, because the disposal of nuclear waste isnt mentioned. Neither in the Russian contract nor in the Japanese. Some journalist think the purpose of this whole project is to collect nuclear waste for enrichment.
fun little factoid, there is a country very close to Turkey who does have nukes. America seems to be moving away from Turkey and with America will go their nukes. This would release Turkey from its deal of being a non nuclear power.
What I gather from ambitious projects Turkey has overtaken is that they want to regain their long lost position of a great power. But what I seriously don’t understand that in today’s world it is the nuclear power projection which is the key. And Turkey essentially being a NPT signatory lacks this. So what outcome they will going to take out from it. Why not invest and reap some sort of deterrence rather than just commercial defence industry.
deterrence against whom ? Greece is part of NATO, Iraq is ruined, Syria is destroyed, any military conflict with Israel will be suicidal, russia / US are in different league (if you consider them any threat). what is left is either the Kurds or ISIS, and you don’t need nukes to deal with them
Deterrence against historical debts. Like the historical debts between India and China, India and Pakistan, Japan and China, Germany and the rest of Europe.
I hope Turkey is successful because the Islamic world needs a success story. Historically Muslims in the ME have never been able to form stable and enduring societies partly because of regular invasions both from east and west, internecine strife and infertile land. Turkey could be a model for other Muslim nations especially in ME. Religion has been and is being used as a political tool by unscrupulous rulers for centuries and Muslims are no different.
I think Turkey has a window of opportunity before they get removed from NATO and collaboration stops. That may not happen immediately as NATO would be shooting themselves in the foot but long term may if AKP stay in power and pursue nationalistic policies. Best case scenario for the West is if a “secular” party wins elections which is not going to happen soon. Good that the Turks are trying to advance quickly in as many areas as possible. They must know that alliance with natural allies like Pakistan is in their interest if we can overcome our problems of dysfunctional democracy and corrupt rotten politicians. That’s keeping progress, money, and friends away. And no it’s not the army’s fault!
SUPRCO and Pakistan government is as usual sleeping.Pakistan politician has no vision.Pakistan desperately need Xband satellite for UAV’s.I dont know why we scumb to international pressure.
One simple answer… misplaced priorities. A satellite program is not very difficult and is doable in parts even on a small budget.
Pakistan’s economic masters have done everything to leave your country internally weak and economically incapable of even piecemeal support for a space program.
Brother Change of Political system and Priorities in Islamic Republic Of Pakistan need of the hour, don’t worry, be happy Positive Great Changes are in progress in our Beloved holy Land IR Pakistan
these days Turkey is trying to reinvent the wheel again . A 5th gen fighter program when you are already part of F-35 project, and now the space program. simply put, they are late by 25 years if they really want to develop launch capabilities. they should rather develop good satellites and outsource the launch to SpaceX or ISRO. these guys will launch them cheaper than the truck fare in Turkey..
So space news are also published here.Good.
National pride is important, which is also the case here with Turkey. but when national pride supersedes pure economics and logic, then you waste your tax payer’s money.
is TFX going to be better or cheaper than F-35 even after 10 years ? i highly doubt .. then what is the point of the program, which will provide expensive product, and very unlikely to sell in export markets.
countries take up these projects – e.g Human Space program for China and India to show mussels, but in case of Turkey, it looks like the norm, which is quite intriguing
The TFX fighter is meant to compensate the shortcomings of the F35 in dogfighting. Thats why.
Height of non sense , ridiculous after DR ABDUL KALAM , do you stopped studying science and technology , its a science and every nation and country has the legitimate wright to study , research and explore the nature if TURKEY has the means and knowledge must do it militarily and commercially .
Good, .. then by that logic some Turkish scientist should also revalidate “law of gravity” or “mass-energy equivalence”, as these laws are proposed and proven by British or American scientist.
Here the argument is not about whether you invest in science or not. Its about optimization of your efforts basis available resources..
I think you don’t understand why Turkey is undertaking Tfx project.
Turkey’s partnership in f35 gives Turkish companies about 10b$ revenue on the long run which also entitles Turkey to buy 100 fighter which also cost about 10b$. Any more order won’t create more revenue or know how to Turkey or Turkish companies. But Turkey needs 250-300 more aircraft on the long run to replace f16s.
On the other hand of argument, What Turkish air force needs isn’t more f35. Turkey needs twin engines aircraft which air force asked for a long time(but never accepted by governments). Problem here is, There isn’t any fifth gen twin engine aircraft on sale in NATO standards. Instead of Ordering more F35 and creating jobs in the U.S., Turkey chosen to invest into new local project. Turkey will likely order not many aircraft if they would have ordered f35. But it will be better suited to TuAF’s needs and it will create jobs and know how in Turkey.
The TFX’s performance against the F-35 doesn’t matter in the present day context, where Turkey will acquire the latter anyways. What matters is that Turkey is manufacturing a platform that it controls, largely regulates and can definitely develop further, tailored to it’s own aspirations.
It is not just a matter of national pride, or flexing muscles. China and India haven’t launched these projects because of any revisionist agendas, they genuinely and quite correctly believe that it is in the long term interest of their people to do so. If Turkey relies entirely on imports forever, it will burn a hole in it’s pocket, restrict it’s foreign policy to American strategic interests and continue the status quo of it being a state dependent on another for national security.
Granted, the TFX or the space program won’t change things overnight. Only a couple of projects can never do so. But Rome wasn’t built in a day, and these initiatives have set Turkey on a trajectory that enhances it’s indigenous armament industries’ base via exposure to modern generation technologies and transfers of such technologies. If not all, a credible degree of transfer will certainly occur overtime, and that’s always a good thing.
This doesn’t supersede economic logic either, Turkey is essentially creating and developing an industry, leading to higher job growth, employment and the very likely prospect of such a venture eventually leading to developments in civilian sectors i.e civil aviation, electronics etc.
TFX is designed to replace the F16s Turkey currently uses and will be a air superiority fighter while the F35 will be utilised as a precision strike asset. The TFX will probably be bought in greater numbers than the f35.
I think you are agitated enough against conservative democracy to rule out facts. Turkey been a NATO Ally has been such a hollow notion that Erdogan had to mend ties with Russia after jet downing simply because the so called nuke umbrella was not available. Turkey needs to have autonomy. Autonomy which they never enjoyed on nukes, remember the Turkish invasion of northern Cyprus where US disarmed it’s own Jupiter missiles in Turkey, fearing Turkish nuclear response to Greece. It is with that historical facts that I wrote that Turkey if it has to make up herself a power to reckon, she must go for nukes. It is the same notion as shared by Israel for historical Solomon’s empire, India for Mahabharata empires, Russia for Russian empire and so forth. You see, in this age it is not mere territorial holdings which give you forward thrust power projection, it is the ballistic missiles with nukes which virtually makes your capability of same nature as of a medieval super-empire
I understand that my bias against what I perceive to be extremism might cloud my opinions to a certain extent. Quite frankly, I do respect Mr. Erdogan for some very valuable industrial policy and regional strategy measures he took ever since he’s been in office.
But truth be told, mending ties and forging alliances akin to the Turkey-US one are two very different things. Fact of matter is, Turkey needs to support the largely Sunni Turkmen in it’s neighbourhood if it has to assert it’s own strategy in the region. And for such efforts, allies are rare. Turkey’s interest converge only mildly with perhaps no other regional player but Qatar, which is already being punished by the Saudis, Emiratis and Egyptians for it’s policies. American friendship, therefore, is a valuable leverage to implement initiatives in the region, especially because America controls the tap on the support to Kurdish militias in both Iraq and Syria. Not being in America’s good books therefore, is something it can ill afford.
As far as nukes go, remember Turkey was invading a sovereign state, not defending itself during the incident that you mentioned. Whether the reasons for the assault were genuine or not doesn’t matter. What matters is that expecting US support to such aggression was expecting too much. So in that sense, I agree with you. For offensive posturing in the region, similar to Israel in the Middle East or China in the South China Sea, Turkey will definitely need nuclear weapons capability. But that opens up the cost vs. benefits debate. Will the Turks risk diplomatic isolation, arms embargoes, economic sanctions and perhaps even punitive military action (remember the Israeli airstrikes on Iraq’s nuclear facilities), all for atomic capacity. Granted, Turkey is a far better off military and economic force to reckon with than Saddam’s Iraq after a decade of war with Iran, but remember that Turkey is in a “take-off” stage right now. It is only venturing into newer generation weapons production, growing the economy rapidly, supporting it’s regional interests etc. The dividends are a long way from being reaped. So killing relatively smaller dreams for the sake of a very controversial and debatable ambition is a risk they mustn’t take.
And conservative democracy or not, I first and foremost crave power for myself and would use a similar logic on Turkey. I am agitated only at cruel social policies, not calculated belligerence.
Changing SUPARCO management, more funding, and joint ventures with Turks is the way forward. It will reduce costs and bind the countries together in joint projects. Maybe give SUPARCO to the army to manage as civilians have a dismal record.
Pakistan missed the bus of missile development the time suparco indigenous hatf program was shunted and replaced with Nescom and KRL assembled Chinese(ghaznabi, Shaheen) and north korean system(ghauri) respectively
Moreover there are mtcr limitations on any missile collaboration above 300km range.
At the best Pak can modify Shaheen 3 into low orbital launching system for <150-200kg satellites but most of the scientists who would hv known something at suparco would be mostly retired now.
Hahaha typical Indian. Why do you guys always have to come up with instant criticism and talk down Pakistan whenever we are discussing further directions? If we listened to you we would start developing wooden catapults and ballistas as a start and wait 100 years before progressing to V-2 rockets. You said the same thing “will never happen” about JF-17, Shaheen, MIRV, naval Babur, nuclear weapons, etc etc. You lot are predictably boring in your comments about Pakistan, China, and Turkey (will NEVER happen), and always end up with egg on your face.
Most of the project u mentioned hasn’t been frutified by Pak r&d and local industrial advancement
Apart from nukes exploration by a q khan ,all of the the programs you have mentioned are more like assembly units of cheeni origin systems.
I don’t want to get into a trolling competition but India is the largest importer of weapons in the whole world. If your “R&D” was so brilliant that would obviously not be the case. All our projects except nuclear are JV’s. Nuclear is indigenous. What about the 100’s of “consultants” in every single project that you could not function without plus the secret help from Russia in cryogenic engines, nuclear and conventional subs, aircraft assembly etc etc…glass houses and all that!
If Pak nukes were indigenous then it would be manufacturing civil nuclear plant indigenously.
Russian Consultant work on most Chinese project as well so there is difference in development with external consultancy and assembling already developed tested system
Indian r&d are humongous but it’s not at par with state of art system developed in West
With the private ecosystem boosting defence industry , India ll be self reliant by 2030
Right you go….they still doubt Pakistan nuke triad and will continue to do so if they keep watching goswami type media.
I agree. Gowasami is a hysterical clown and oversees contrived shrill shouting matches masquerading as ‘debates’. It’s a reflection on the maturity of the public who watch these ridiculous shows. Obviously the concept of journalism and listening to varied points of view is lost on these guys. It’s does serve to build up hatred and unrealistic expectations in the poverty stricken clueless which is probably BJP’s agenda.
Indeed, wasn’t it this Goswami charged clueless mob which demanded Indian government to attack Pakistan just like Israel attacks Gaza😂
Countries with Triad have full fledged SLBM of Long range with SSBN capabilities.
By the above definition, India is emerging nuclear triad power.
First prototype test of Babur naval cruise missiles from underwater pontoon isn’t credible enough.
India did far powerful test of SLBM Sagarika missile as early as 2009.
Every expert knws the origin of Babur CM and they also know that it ll be integrated with those 8 submarine procured from China.
Since french agosta ECAN torpedo tubes can’t hold any ~6 meter long missile and object with mass 1500kg so it ll perhaps take Pakistan a decade to develop Cruise missile triad only after those Chinese submarine are inducted in Pak Navy.
Agree that organised religion or radical parties have no place in governing a modern state, except at the fringe that some people vote for in any country. We can be “influenced” by religion or pursue polices “rooted” in religion but handing over power to a radial fringe is a recipe for disaster as their entire emphasis is emotional and one-track. In Pakistan there is also an tendency towards violence which should be crushed with an iron hand and immediately. We can learn a lot from Turkey in that respect.
Hearing about Turkey SLV for long long time.
Turks most efforts have been channeled in small sized rocket engine of SAM.
They indeed received some rudimentary Chinese surface to surface rocket technology in 90s..
Technologically more advanced country such as south Korea, Brazil have not been able to develop SLV despite putting in decades of effort
Russian, Ukraine just can’t sell any > 600 KM range solid/liquid rocket technology to Turkey as part of MTCR memebership agreement
Propulsion system development and control system for large sized rocket require decades of effort..
South Koreas NARO rocket uses Russian second stage LOX engine but it is barely suitable for low weight low earth orbit launcher.
So Turkey should first aspire to achieve low earth orbital launching capabilities of north korea and Iran.
And again, BS at its finest…
Tutkey has already developed dual stage and smokless rocket engines and a engine with a range of 900km (yildirim III) the yildrim IV (with 2500km) nears its completion and will be ready in few years…
Why does he continue to talk nonsense south korea can develop whatever it wants it is technologically far ahead of russia ukraine and India put together. SLV technology has hardly advanced since the 80’s and even third world countries like india have them so the brake on development of these systems in both Korea and brazil is political not technological
Beacause talking nonsense is his profession… He really thinks, that Korea cant develop SLVs, while India can (like wtf ???). Korea is a technological and economical powerhouse and is india miles ahead.
And you are right rocket technology didnt progress at all since the 80’s. Only space X brought some new life into it.
What a silly statement extreamism sectarianism hasn’t got anything to do with pakistans present predicaments. Rather its the corrupt SECULAR elites both civillian and military that have plundered the country and have always sold out the national interests for US intetests.
Its always the secular people, who blame the religious for beeing backwarded in their vality and yet they are the real corrupt, useless parasites, who mismanage the country for decades and bring it into bancruptcy (like the secular CHP did with turkey). these egocentric people always love the status quo, because any good like: public education or advancement and technological progress would harm their rule. It was a ultra conservative islamic party, which guided turkey out of the misery. And i hope erdogan doesnt become secular (which he does, slowly). secularism and democracy is a western illness, which always makes a government corrupt, uneffective, criminal, antisocial godless and bureaucratically overloaded. A islamic politician is thousend times better, than a secular. At least they are God-fearing people, which have the peoples well beeing in their mind.
But of course the godless western system (democracy/secularism) corrupts them all after a while..
Alright, friends, you each got a say on this. Let’s return to SLVs.
Jenab, one mustn’t assume stuff so quickly. I’m a devout, pious religious Muslim, and I don’t require a certification on that from anyone but my creator. So, stop attacking me because you perceive me to be a non practicing, liberal and colonial complex ridden person.
And please don’t let your pre-conceived notions blind you from the truth. The policy of appeasement of clergy by Pakistani leadership, civilian and military, is responsible for close to a hundred thousand deaths and a hundred billion dollar worth of financial losses in the Islamic Republic, let alone measure the social trauma and the damage to the collective psyche of the nation. Extremist and sectarian narratives need to be countered. If you don’t trust me, at least trust our very esteem Gen (retd.) Raheel Sharif. He was the first person who pointed out the obvious. The terrorists who burnt down schools, carried out suicide bombings and massacred children did so under the garb of “Islamising” the already Islamic Republic of Pakistan. This is exactly why ISPR is engaged in mass counter propaganda since General Asim Bajwa’s tenure.
Waisay, aap ke arguments se mein koi utna ziyada ikhtilaaf nahi rakhta. Supposedly “liberal” and “secular” parties such as the People’s Party or the Nun League are endemically corrupt. Kuch hudd tak corruption har mulk mein hai, be it Pakistan, India, China or wherever. But there needs to be enough transparency and accountability that at least the basic functionality of a government isn’t questioned.
When I refer to extremism in the society, educational setup and curriculum, I in no way intend that we preach immorality and indecency to our children. But please take a look at what was being debated at our prestigious varsities, by esteemed scientists during the 80’s and you’ll get my point. Secularization of technical education is something I stand by firmly, no matter how corrupt it’s advocates are. If we are to have a respectful future as a nation, we need to check our Mullahs for not overstepping the line and assuming roles they are not qualified for, while also keeping a tab on our politicians, civil servants, judges and generals alike to ensure that national objectives in defense, foreign policy, education, healthcare and social welfare are not hampered.
@amir_timur:disqus your opinion deserves a 1000 likes. Zia is ruining pakistan even from his grave. these mullahs doing so called ‘mazhab ka hifazat’ are the worst hypocrites robbing young generations of their ability to think critically.
More power to the likes of people like you. bravo!
They will never be voted into power mate and that’s a fact. They will be confined to the fringe and that’s also a fact. Pakistanis are a religious people but also have logic and know what is good for them. That’s why these parties have never gained more than a few percentage of the vote.
Fringe!!!… Who’s Moodi???
Back to SLVs, please.
Not a bad idea at all to have a bigger domestic space program. I consider space and related military programs as a key mark of national sovereignty and diplomatic autonomy.
Cost comparisons with Falcon X etc miss the bigger point,…
large scale aerospace programs have much bigger multiplier effects across local industries and help the long term growth trajectory of a nation.. From an Indian perspective, Turkey is to be wished all success in this endeavor to gain tech. autonomy.
Fully Support Republic Of Turkey’s Great Project
Pakistan should nt have tried to build parity with india as it’s economy, policy, democracies are far less matured.
China has 4+times bigger economy while indo pak ratio is bigger but india rarely tries to copy china mindlessly.
What would happen to pak in coming decade. It’s local r&d in aircrafts, missile, radars, Cruise missile are insignificant.
In next decade u ll see usa russia china india mastering missile based on hypersonic and scramjets while pak would be totally dependent on Chinese gratitude
Pakistan will go to any length in stabilizing the strategic mix in South Asia. And thanks for at least accepting that your armed forces and MoD is buying DRDO junk just to kick start your domestic industry and are actually benefitting from foreign bought product for quality at the expense of billions of dollars…tch..tch..
First of all DRDO doesn’t manufacture any defence product.
They are research institutions who provide these defence manufacturing companies with IP(design nd fabrication process ).
Some of Indian PSU public sector industry is being replaced by private sector enterprises.
So we won’t be making future tanks in ordinance factory any more.
Most of DRDO proprietary missile,radar are built by TASL, Godrej aerospace, Larsen & Tubro nd dozens other aeronautical companies.
With offsets clauses nd TOT, knowledge sharing from MNC ; some of these Pvt companies ll grow up to mega bill $ of yearly revenue/yr.