President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan announced that Turkey had already finalized and signed onto a purchase of Almaz-Antey S-400 long-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems from Russia.
In a statement to Turkish journalists, Erdoğan revealed that Turkey had already paid a deposit to Russia, though it is still engaging on an intergovernmental basis on the issue of export credit to support the deal.
“Our friends have already signed [an agreement on] S-400s. A deposit has also been paid, as far as I know. The process will continue by the transfer of a credit from Russia to us. Both Mr. [Russian President Vladimir] Putin and myself, we are determined on this issue,” said Erdogan to journalists (via Hurriyet).
In July, Bloomberg reported that Ankara and Moscow agreed to a $2.5 billion U.S. contract for four S-400 systems. It is believed that a measure of transfer-of-technology will be involved, though to what extent is not known, though Bloomberg reported that two of the S-400 systems would be ‘produced’ in Turkey.
Turkey began seeking the S-400 in November 2016, with negotiations occurring in February and March of this year. In June, Russian President Vladimir Putin informed journalists that a deal was being finalized.
Besides the 40N6 missile, which has a range of 400 km, the S-400 also comprises of the 9M96E, 9M96E2 and 48N6, which have ranges of 60 km, 120 km, and 250 km, respectively. Turkey will be the third foreign S-400 user, following China and India. Almaz-Antey is also developing a complementary medium-to-long-range system in the S-350E, which will also use the S-400’s 9M96E (60 km) and 9M96E2 (120 km) missiles.
In parallel to the S-400, the Turkish companies Aselsan and Roketsan signed a “Heads of Agreement” with French-Italian consortium Eurosam to fulfill the Turkish Undersecretariat of Defence Industries (SSM)’s requirement for a homegrown long-range SAM system. Development of the system will commence after a “definition study”, which is expected to require up to 24 months (Defense Aerospace).
Notes & Comments:
Assuming the S-400 deal is in effect, it appears that Turkey is acquiring the S-400 with the goal to provide high-level air defence coverage. In turn, the Aselsan-Roketsan-Eurosam/SSM-commissioned program will complement the S-400 in the capacity of a medium-to-long-range system analogous to the S-350E.
The SSM commissioned the homegrown SAM program in response to the HQ-9 deal with China failing in 2015. The HQ-9 (at least its export variant, FD-2000) has a range of 125 km (Air Power Australia), so it sits in the area of the S-350 and Aster 30 SAMP/T [Surface-to-Air Missile Platform/Terrain]. Turkey’s TF-2000 anti-air warfare (AAW) frigate will likely be fit with a variant of the SSM-commissioned SAM. Aselsan has also been working on radar solutions, such as the ÇAFRAD suite for the TF-2000.
The S-400 and SSM projects, if brought to fruition, would largely complete Turkey’s air defence plans, with short-range air defence (SHORAD) and very short-range air defence (VSHORAD) systems in production, or at least nearing production. The Aselsan Korkut self-propelled anti-air gun (SPAAG) entered production in March, it will form Turkey’s mobile VSHORAD element. This will be augmented with the Roketsan HİSAR-A short-range (15 km) SAM, which will operate in-concert with the Korkut SPAAG (with the Korkut’s fire-control radar guiding the HİSAR-A SAM). The HİSAR-O, which is to have a range of 25 km, will form Turkey’s medium-range air defence layer.
This is a good way to do it. Buy an off the shelf system for immediate needs, while also working on an indigenous system. Also Turkey is not putting all it’s eggs in one basket to avoid future problems. We need to buy HQ-9 on credit from China, but with foreign exchange reserves dipping to $14B only, the situation with this government is dire (Bangladesh has $33B). Financial mismanagement and corruption rules. They are again talking about IMF. Shameful. The whole nation seems to be on drugs to not be able to see who is good and who is bad for the country. Given the chance they will elect NS or 10% yet again. These 2 families will not stop until the country is bankrupt, and they own half of Dubai. Sorry for the rant.
Bitter truth i’d say than a rant. No wonder the only countries supporting and crying about these two thug families are hardcore enemies of Pakistan – while some several hundred thousand local idiots also pray for their continued rule during Hajjs and Ummrah’s, besides praying nafal day and night. There’s some serious all round challenges the country is facing due to the extravagant corruption and traitory in last 5 years. I have no doubt that Nawaz sharif took oath on destroying the institution of military in Pakistan after his debacle in 1999 even if it costs breaking the entire country – and he’s been working on this actively. There’s a lot of sense in what ex-interior minister Chodry nisar said that only 3-4 people actually know the dimension and magnitude of challenges Pakistan is currently facing and that fat pate was on of them. He has actually slept over it all deliberately. Then comes the military which in its confused wisdom is making all kinds of policies singlehandedly and getting it implemented without any legal or constitutional questioning of it. Can’t believe this military would be in business of missing persons and picking up pakistani cilivlans without any law and order to question it. This country needs a purge at all levels and an overhaul like never before, otherwise we all know where it’s headed with no one taking responsibility of it.
Of course our enemies who want to see us subservient will support politicians or should I say corrupt political thugs to further that aim. Destruction of the military’s capabilities and denuclearisation, with the army turning into a mercenary COIN army to support the agenda of these people in the Middle East and the subcontinent has long been an aim. Our clueless public should also realise that using religion to further their nefarious designs is a tried and tested method of our enemies, as it hijacks the logic and reasoning centres of the brain and makes uneducated masses susceptible to manipulation.
It’s very clear that all states controlled by civilians behave as proportional to economy, Military power in their true standup in league of nation’s. For the same reason, rational state like india realize that china whose economy is almost 4-5times bigger; deserve the power it projects and india uses sheer diplomacy to engage with china
USA Russian China ASEAN India western world Japan Eastern European countries nd even theological states such as Iran saudi follow these rules as their interest is not driven by national security but economy.
Pakistan is barely 320 bill$ economy with one of highest birth rates . Recently Bangladesh’s economy exceeded pak In per capita income
So what makes pak special country .it hasn’t proven leadership in any skill based industry. It’s expats haven’t shown excellence in knowlede based sectors.
So it’s time for Pakistan to realize that It’s military institution can project power proportional to its true value in league of nations.
Gone are the days when state non state actors as sole mean to extend their foreign policy objectives.
Pakistan military benefited from corrupt civilian govt as they need them to prove that army institution is relatively less corrupt.
But world isn’t bothered about immature Pakistani democracy as their main aim is to support democracy nd make pakistan accountable to its policy.
Today’s modern nation state has no tolerance to such states who continue to survive on 20th century strategic policy nd use confusion about civil military imbalance to pursue their policy
I was addressing my countrymen. Thanks for the observation and I don’t agree with many of your assertions as your POV is Indian. Especially the one about expats 😉 I don’t like you talking down Pakistan, but don’t want to discuss with you as mods are being sensitive. All we need is sincere leadership and then the true potential will be realised.
Getting closer with regional and near neighbor Fed of Russia, Republic of Turkey has taken a well thought step proving politically historically wise under the leadership of Great Leader Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
One may try to understand geo-politics, but Russia selling the S-400 to a NATO member is mind-blowing. More so to an untrusted partner such as Erdogan.
I agree it is odd that the Turks are risking a lot to get closer to the Russians. F-35 for instance. Unless Erdogan has decided the West will not work with him for ideological reasons and tried to get him killed in the coup, and has therefore given up on NATO. Not good in the long run for Turkey but the AKP are no fools and would have done their calculations. It is probably a warning shot across the bows of NATO to gain more influence and leverage. With the mess in the Middle East the West can’t do without Turkey for decades, similar to Pakistan in the eighties with the Soviets in Afghanistan. Seismic shifts in alliances are underway.